** • Motors contribute to the short circuit currents and have to be considered for calculation of maximum short circuit currents M M • If R/X is unknown, the following values can be used: - R/X = 0**.1 medium voltage motors power per pole pair > 1 MW - R/X = 0.15 medium voltage motors power per pole pair ≤ 1 M point of common coupling . Themain goal of the short-circuit study is to calculate the short-circuit currents and voltages at various locations throughout the system. Representation of the three-phase vs. symmetrical components . It is a customary practice for conventional three-phase electrical systems to b

Short-Circuit Calculation 480 volts Fault 1 - ISC1 = = 96 Amps 5 ohms Fault 2 - refer 5 ohms from 480V to 240V 2 240 V Ohms @ 240V = 5 x = 5 x 0.25 480V Ohms @ 240V = 1.25 Assume perfect transformer (Z = 0%) Total Impedance = 1.25 + 3 = 4.25 ohms 240 volts Fault 2 - ISC2 = = 56.5 Amps 4.25 ohms Short-Circuit Calculation Short-Circuit Calculation This conversion is necessary when a transformer must be included or motor contribution is being considered The total symmetrical short-circuit RMS current is (10) (%X**) (KVsecondary)2 calculated as: Step 2. X trans Ω = KVA trans †† Itotal S.C. sym RMS = (IS.C. sym RMS ) + (Isym motor contrib) (10) (%R**) (KVsecondary)2 Rtrans Ω = Step 11. Determine X/R ratio of the system to the point of KVA trans fault. Step 3 Short Circuit Calculations Only one calculation needs to be done for most 3 phase systems. This is for the per unit method. 3 Phase I SCA = KVA Base √3 KVLL total PUZ KVA Base = 10,000 Single Phase Two separate calculations must be done for single phase systems. I SCA = KVA Base ( KV line to line ) (total PUZ ** Short-Circuit Current Calculations Single-Phase Short Circuits 2 3 Line-to-Line (L-L) Fault Step 1**. If. l. = 75 X1000 = 312.5A 240 Step 2. Multipler = 100 = 79.37 1.4X0.9 † Step 3. Is.c. (L-L) = 312.5 X79.37 = 24,802A f . =

short circuit calculation from MV take-off point to the final distribution board. Assume all cables are XLPE type. Solution: The short circuit current Is given by 1-To calculate the short circuit current at LV B/B -1,The total Impedance Z T from point A to point B must be found . Network upstream o Short circuits have occurred when someone placed a wrench across the switchboard bus bars accidentally. It might happen that water leak or some other form of contamination creates a conductive path between phases/neutral and/or ground. The air insulation will break down and produce a short circuit arc. #3: In the figure below, a short circuit is caused by connecting a wire to the positive and negative terminals of a battery Chapter 6: Short Circuit Studies - Symmetrical Faults 2013 113 Electrical Power Systems Fig 6.6 The current waveform of the circuit of Fig 6.5 before and after the closing of the switch S Once the fault occurs and the system is allowed to reach the steady state, the current phasor is given by This current has a peak value of 95.28 A ANSI Short-Circuit Calculation Methods PowerStation provides two short-circuit calculation methods based on ANSI/IEEE and IEC standards. You can select the calculation method from the Short-Circuit Study Case Editor. This section describes the ANSI/IEEE standard method of calculation Abstract: - This paper discusses about analysis and calculation of short - circuit by the program created to solve a short - circuit ratios in the power system according to Standard IEC 60909. One of the main subject is describing short-circuit current in system with currents without attenuation alternatin

* property, short-circuit currents must be calculated for every point in the network*. This Cahier Technique reviews the calculation methods for short-circuit currents as laid down by standards such as IEC 60909. It is intended for radial and meshed low-voltage (LV) and high-voltage (HV) circuits short-circuit current is calculated by using a simple formula. The short-circuit power at the point of the fault is calculated by calculating the total impedance at that point fro 1.1 Introduction to the short circuit phenomenon A short circuit (S/C) in an electrical circuit is a part of the circuit that for some reasons has become shorter than it should be. The current in an electrical circuit flows the easiest way and if two points in a circuit with different potentials are connected with lo

Short Circuit Analysis Let V = normal phase voltage in volts 1= fall load current in amperes at base KVA % X = percentage reactance of the system expressed on base KVA. The short circuit current, 100 JSc = I. %X The three phase or total short circuit KVA 3.V Isc 3.V.I 100 3V I 100 1000 (%X) 1000 1000 %X 10 * A short-circuit current generates heat that is proportional to the square of the current magnitude, I2R*. The large amount of heat generated by a short-circuit current may damage the insulation of rotating machinery and apparatus that is connected into the faulted system, including cables, transformers, switches, and circuit breakers. The mos

Short circuit current (A): Isc = 1,872 A . Symmetrical fault current calculations • To determine the fault current in a large power system: - Create a per-phase per-unit equivalent circuit of the power system using either sub-transient reactances (if subtransient currents are needed) or transien * Basic Short-Circuit Calculation Procedure*. Procedure Step 1 Determine transf. full-load amperes from either: a) Name plate b) Tables 3A & 3B c) Formula Step 2 Find transformer multiplier See Note 3. Step 3 Determine transf. let-through short-circuit current (Formula or Table 5) See Note 1 and Note 4. Step 4 Calculate f factor. Step 5 Calculate M (multiplier) or take from Table 4. Step 6 Compute the available short-circuit current (RMS symmetrical

Motor short circuit contribution, if significant, may be added at all fault locations throughout the system. A practical estimate of motor short circuit contribution is to multi-ply the total motor current in amps by 4. Values of 4 to 6 are commonly accepted. Step 4. Calculate the f factor. Step 6. Calculate the available short circuit symmetrical RM permanent (this is the value of the short-circuit current in steady state). The short-circuit current is calculated in the same way as for transformers but the different states must be taken account of. The short-circuit current is given by the following equation: G Example: Calculation method for an alternator or a synchronous motor Alternator 15 MV

- Abstract: This recommended practice provides short-circuit current information including calculated short-circuit current duties for the application in industrial plants and commercial buildings, at all power system voltages, of power system equipment that senses, carries, or interrupts short-circuit currents. Equipmen
- short-circuit calculation. When this option is selected, all the loads that satisfy either or both of the above two criterions will be included in the short-circuit study. Operation Technology, Inc. 24-6 ETAP PowerStation 4.0 . DC Short-Circuit Analysis Display Option
- e and set voltage levels, an
- The results of the Device Duty Short Circuit calculation are displayed on the one-line. Changing the settings in the short circuit Display Options can modify the results displayed and their format on the one-line. Note that breaker CB9 and CB18 are now colored magenta. This flag means that the device capabilitie

- ing the ratings of electrical equipment to be installed in a project. It is also used as a basis in setting protection devices. Computer software simplifies this process however, in cases where it is not available, alternative methods should be used. The.
- Calculation of Short-Circuit Currents at Second Transformer in System Use the following procedure to calculate the level of fault cur-rent at the secondary of a second, downstream transformer in a system when the level of fault current at the transformer primary is known
- Short Circuit Calculation - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Scribd is the world's largest social reading and publishing site
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DC circuit breakers are therefore necessary for the interruption of the short-circuit current especially for the reliable operation of multi-terminal HVDC systems. In this paper a calculation. A typical fixed impedance short-circuit calculation Afixed impedance calculation (FIC) uses the superposition method described above to calculate: C1 The initial sub-transient symmetrical short-circuit current Isym and, C2 The transient symmetrical short-circuit current ' Isym

- calculation of mechanical forces for rigid conductors during short-circuit have been presented. Further Further calculations for final result will be done by Finite Element Method
- Analysis of Short-circuit Current Calculation Method in Wind Power Plant Design Mingyang Liu 1, Wenxia Pan 1,2, Gang Yang 1, Hanjiang Liu 1, Di Wu 3 1. College of Energy and Electrical Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing210098,China hhulmy@126.com 2. Research Center for Renewable Energy Generation Engineering Ministry of Education, Hohai.
- The asymmetrical short circuit current calculation results were lower than those the simulations, with 403.9 A (9.24%) average difference, for two phase and 48.4 (12.53%) for one phase faults
- TSEWG TP-1: ELECTRICAL CALCULATION EXAMPLES SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT EFFECTS. Electrical distribution systems must be designed to withstand the maximum expected fault (short circuit) current until the short circuit current is cleared by a protective device. This is a fundamental electrical requirement
- e equipment short circuit/interrupting ratings SKM PTW DAPPER, Hand Calculation X X X 30/60/90 Lighting To deter

Application of Fault Analysis 1. The determination of the required mechanical strength of electrical equipment to withstand the stresses brought about by the flow of high **short** **circuit** currents 2 A basic electrical theorem says that the short circuit current actually depends upon the two most important parameters: The total impedance from the source to the point of the fault. The nominal voltage of the system. With the help of the basic formula, we can easily calculate the short circuit current at the fault location, and with the help. Once the short-circuit levels are determined, the engineer can specify proper interrupting rating require-ments, selectively coordinate the system and provide component protection. Title: A Simple Approach To Short Circuit Calculations - Copper Bussmann. Format: PDF. Size Short-circuit current the short-circuit current that could flow during fault is known as the 'prospective short-circuit current' (PSCC), and any device installed to protect against such a current must be able to break it. Figure1 shows PSCC over one half-cycle; t 1 is the time taken t

Short-Circuit Current Calculations (GET-3550F) Author: GE ED&C Subject: Application Keywords: GET-3550, GET-3550F, GET3550, GET3550F, Short circuit, application, stuA6f k|§ k`aÕ |!\h\à Created Date: 10/12/1995 3:52:34 P ** PDF | The paper presents an improved approach to the short-circuit currents calculation**. The paper deals with a method of DC component calculation based... | Find, read and cite all the research. The calculation of the short-circuit impedance based on the rated data of the electrical equipment and the topological arrangement of the system has the advantage of being possible both for existing systems and for systems at the planning stage. There are two different short-circuit currents to be calculated which differ in their.

- The Short-Circuit calculation process according to the IEC-60909 and ANSI standards is based on the equivalent voltage source method with certain assumptions. A thorough . T . analysis on the two static approaches, considering the prefault conditions, the network topology representation and the S
- ology This section provides a high level summary of some of the ter
- converter are very dependent on the Short Circuit Ratio (SCR) of the ac system to which the converter is connected. This paper introduces off-line SCR estimation based on pre-set switching status of the ac system. The control gains of the VSC HVDC system can be adjusted on-line to achieve optimal performance based on a calculation of the SCR
- This network is used to calculate the interrupting short-circuit current and protective device duties 1.5-4 cycles after the fault. 30-Cycle Network This is the network used to calculate the steady-state short-circuit current and settings for over current relays after 30 cycles
- Per unit method short circuit calculation. Here we convert the 5 below examples to per unit on a 100,000 kVA base. Example #1: the available short circuit is 750,000 kVA or 750 MVA. Thus, Example #2: the available short circuit is 35,500 amps at 12,470 volts. Example #3: the equivalent utility reactance is 0.5 per unit on a 500,000 kVA base
- The calculation of short circuit current contribution from the corresponding buses ( ′_ ∠ _ ′_ ) is then obtained through a short-circuit fault computation [146] .Then, the transient voltage.
- 200X rates used previously, the short circuit current of 1745A at 10 milliseconds in this example is approximately 640 times the 10 hour discharge rate (2.73A at the 10 hour rate). 20X 8. Short Circuit Estimation Methods The IEC method of estimating the short circuit current is based on discharging the battery at 4x its rated 10 hour discharg

Short Circuit Calculation Free PDF eBooks. Posted on February 24, 2017. Short-Circuit Current Calculations - Cooper Industries Short-Circuit Current Calculations. Basic Point-to-Point Calculation Procedure. Step 1. Determine the transformer full load amps (F.L.A.) from. Multiplier = 100 CHAPTER 2. SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT CALCULATION THEORY AND TECHNIQUES 2.1 Introduction Power system short circuit levels must be determined in order to specify the require

Systems; this guide discusses the short-circuit characteristics of batteries and battery chargers and provides guidance for the protection of battery systems. 7. IEC Standard 61660; Short-circuit currents in dc auxiliary installations in power plants and substations; Two volumes- volume 1: Calculation of short-circuit 2 MV/LV transformer substations: theory and examples of short-circuit calculation 1 General information on MV/LV transformer substations 1.Classic types An electrical transformer substation consists of a whole set of devices (conductors, measuring and control ap ** Short circuit current calculation using MVA method: The following is the procedure**. Convert the typical single line diagram to an equivalent MVA diagram.; Simplification of an equivalent MVA diagram into a single short-circuits MVA value at the point of fault

- IEC 909 SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS Page 7 3.3 Once the Short Circuit interface appears, proceed to specify the required short circuit components, the calculation methodology, and the specific IEC calculation controls. Follow the methodology outlined in the screen-capture shown above. Step 1 Select the Options icon. Step 2 Fill out th
- power ow calculation into short circuit calculation. is method can calculate both power ow and short circuit current of distribution network. Since the power ow calcu-lation method of this paper is only applicable to symmetric system, the integrated calculation method based on it is only applicable to symmetrical fault calculation. In addition
- IEC-60909 Short-Circuit in EasyPower. This is possible if the d. The influence of various winding-temperatures on RGf is not considered. RL is the line resistance for a conductor temperature of 20 OC, when calculating the maximum short-circuit currents. As described in the methodology the solution is obtained using the equivalent voltage source.
- introduction of circuit breaker, its operation and load calculations. Miniature Circuit Breaker (MCB) A circuit breaker is a protective device to protect the application during an overcurrent condition. MCB is a resettable protective device that protects against situations like Overload and Short Circuit
- exact magnitude of the short circuit current flow. In actual practice, short circuit levels are, for the most part, lower than calculated values. That aspect is mostly related to a varying amount of resistance present in the short circuit path at any given moment. Thus, the word with-stand, if it were assigned to a pane
- Reflecting the changes to the all-important short circuit calculations in three-phase power systems according to IEC 60909-0 standard, this new edition of the practical guide retains its proven and unique concept of explanations, calculations and real-life examples of short circuits in electrical networks

3 69 3 Calculation of Short-Circuit Currents in Three-Phase Systems 3.1 Terms and definitions 3.1.1 Terms as per IEC 60909 Short circuit: the accidental or deliberate connection across a comparatively low resistance or impedance between two or more points of a circuit which usually hav The ANSI method is commonly used in short circuit current calculation software. Our short circuit analysis service: Is done with support of IEC 60909 (including 2016 edition), IEEE 141/ANSI C37, VDE 0102/0103, G74 and IEC 61363 norms and methods Is calculation of short-circuit currents in DC grids according to IEC 61660 and ANSI/IEEE 94 A simple method for the approximation of short circuit current is the infinite bus short circuit calculation method. This method calculates the worst possible or maximum current that propagates from the transformer in case of a short circuit. We get maximum value because the source and any other impedances are ignored or considered equal to. ** Short-circuit current is the flow of electrical energy that results when the insulation barrier fails and allows current to flow in a shorter path than the intended circuit**. In normal operations, as shown in Fig. 1, the impedance of the electrical load limits the current flow to relatively small values Perform Device Duty Calculations using ETAP's short circuit analysis software which allows you to determine fault currents and automatically compare these values against manufacturer short circuit current ratings.Overstressed device alarms are displayed on the one-line diagram and included in short circuit analyzer and study reports

Short Circuit Calculation Spreadsheet - Simple tool designed for data estimation and conservative short-circuit scenarios. In this way, it automatically applies the coefficients and factors of the ANSI and IEC standards, compares the results with the data published by manufacturers and also emits alarms and warnings when the devices exceed their capacity. The review and Step 1 - Determine the short circuit current rating (SCCR) of each component or combination in the power circuit. (SB4.2) Step 2 - Determine whether feeder circuit components limit fault current (SB4.3) circuitprotective devices, like the fuse. Step 3 - Determine overall short circuit current rating for industrial control panel (SB4.4.)

- Short circuit current value for a simple system is calculated using MVA method. The obtained results are compared with ETAP SIMULATION results
- Short circuit force in an AIS with special reference to L-L and L-L-L faults Sudarshan V J PG Scholar, CTM program, The calculation steps are enlisted in the IEC standard [5]. The standard aids in calculating the electromagnetic forces due to short circuit currents
- Therefore, this research is aimed at creating a short circuit calculation software, in which the calculation data will be saved as historical record in an IMO number group and the method of calculation will be technically uniform. The calculation is intended to obtain the short circuit current of a.c three phase based on IEC 61363 standard
- With the short-circuit current calculation according to IEC60909, typical 3-pole and 1-pole faults at different fault locations are simulated. Thereby, the short-circuit rating of the equipment as well as different earthing concepts are evaluated. The introduction of the tools for network plannin
- you calculate the spacing between the conductors in, ref mva method short circuit calculation centralmat, what is the difference between a 33kva and 11kva power line, ukpn cables 11kv triplex and 33kv eland cables, 11kv medium voltage power cables eland cables, 1 electrical system bureau of energy efficiency, difference between 11kv 5kva and.
- ate triple harmonics (n = 3, 6, 9) appearing on the output voltages. Fig. A transformer can not act as a phase
- View Notes - Lecture-12.-Short-Circuit-Calculation.pdf from ELECTRICAL EE 146 at University of the Philippines Diliman. Shop Practice with Electrical Code: Voltage Drop and Short Circuit Calculation

Download PDF - Iec-865-1-short-circuit-currents-part-1-definitions-and-calculation-methods.pdf [6ngex5v33klv].. Calculation of winding resistance and leakage reactance: The input power which is measured in the short circuit test is unlikely to be the same as V I calculated from measurements. Let us suppose for the moment that the impedance at the primary terminals is a series combination of resistance R % and reactance X %

การคํานวณกระแสล ัดวงจร (Short Circuit Calculation) ํ ั การลัดวงจร (Short Circuit) ในระบบ ** ต้องคํานึงถึงการ Co ordination อุปกรณ์ป้องกัน * short circuit currents for three phase bolted faults can be determined using commercial software packages. A basic estimate presented in NFPA 70E - 2003 is utilizing the upstream transformer information in the following equation (7). The accurate short circuit current will be less than this determined value due to the system impedance o A load flow and short circuit fault simulation of AC electrified railway distribution systems is presented with DIgSILENT PowerFactory software. Load flow of electrified railways distribution system with concerning multi train lines and dynamic characteristics of train load is studied for different time laps. The dynamic characteristics of train load in starting and braking conditions with.

1.2 Short-Circuit Path in the Positive-Sequence System 3 Current Current (a) (b) Top envelope Top envelope Bottom envelope Bottom envelope Time Time d.c. component i d.c.of the short-circuit current d.c. component i d.c.of the short-circuit current A i p A i p 2 √ 2 I ″ k 2 √ 2 I ″ k 2 √ 2 I k 2 √ 2 I k =2 √ 2 I ″ Short Circuit ! Z L =0 !Γ=-1; Vref=-Vinc Remember: Everything is with respect to the load so far! Vref= Vreflected ; Vinc = Vincident. Voltage Reflection Coefficient Normalized load impedance Pay attention! Example Example Example Notes . Standing Waves Finding Voltage Magnitud 2. Algorithm of Short Circuit Current Calculation 2.1. Algorithm Based on Schemes In the calculation of short circuit current, the principle formula includes: 3* k k k U I Z = (1) where Uk is the open circuit voltage of short circuit point, in BPA it's often fixed to 1.05Un, Zk is equivalent impedance of short circuit point, other hypothese The calculation of short-circuit currents in three-phase a.c. systems This is a free 8 page sample. Access the full version online. This Australian Standard was prepared by Committee EL/7, Power Switchgear. It was approved on behalf of the Council of Standards Australia on 7 August 1990 an

the calculation of the short circuit current if this impedance is equal to or less than 5% of the short circuit impedance of the transformer. Uses equation 4. Symmetrical current. (4) √ ( ) Where in: U_n is the nominal system voltage. (kV) Z_T is the impedance of the transformer;. Introduction Determining available short circuit fault currents is one of the most important aspects of designing power distribu-tion systems. Short circuits and their effects must be considered in selecting electrical equipment, circuit protection devices, carrying out arc flash analysis. The short circuit calculator presented on web-site is offered in effort to satisfy the need for a.

In the meantime, a comprehensive study of the short circuit current calculation is implemented and can be observed how the system can be checked by the results of this study. In the dynamic study of the system, the biggest motor starting is simulated and the impacts of the voltage dip due to starting of this motor on the other running motors. Short-circuit calculation of the IM usually uses the voltage source equivalent method [4]. The similar method used for IG cannot calculate the short-circuit currents accurately during the fault process, because it does not consider the electromagnetic transient characteristics of IGs [5,6]. Therefore, understanding th Short-Circuit, Coordination, and Arc-Flash Studies for Data Centers . individual power system components to determine if the equipment is adequately rated to safely withstand or interrupt the calculated fault current. The results of the short circuit study are also used in both the coordination study and the arc-flash study Short circuit photocurrent The short-circuit current (ISC) is the current through the solar cell when the voltage across the solar cell is zero (i.e., when the solar ce ll is short circuited). Usually written as I SC, the short-circuit current is shown on the IV curve below. ISC is due to the generation and collection of light -generated. Power Research and Development Consultants Pvt. Ltd Page 3 MiP-PSCT SCS . 1.INTRODUCTION . POWERSCS module is designed to perform the short circuit study for the given system.Short circuit studies are performed to determine the magnitude of the currents flowing throughout th

60909-0 O IEC:2001 -9- INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION FDIS SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENTS IN THREE-PHASE AC SYSTEMS - Part O: Calculation of currents Report on voting FOREWORD 73/119/FDIS I) The IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees) Examples of calculation of short circuit levels: Example 1: A three-phase transformer of a medium voltage substation has a power of 630000VA, a primary voltage of 13200V and a secondary voltage of 480V, with an impedance of 5%, which short-circuit level has the transformer at low voltage (secondary side) Short-circuit current calculation in three-phase a.c. systems . IEC . ٦٠٩٠٩-١:١٩٩١, Short-circuit current calculation in three-phase a.c. systems - Part the short Circuit Current rating refers to the maximum current, usually expressed in ka at a specified voltage, that a device or system can safely withstand for a specified time (such as 0.05 seconds), or until a specified fuse or circuit breaker opens and clears the circuit. many U

The short circuit currents dictate the rating of circuit breakers to be employed at various buses and in various lines of the network. The effect of three phase short circuit faults on power system has been studied in terms of post-fault conditions and pre-fault conditions. In this paper, three phase short circuit fault is simulated on the standar In some short circuit studies, the X/R ratio is ignored when comparing the short circuit rating of the equipment to the available fault current at the equipment. What is not always realized is that when low-voltage gear is tested, it is tested at a certain X/R ratio. The X/R ratio is important because it determine short circuit calculator pdf document, short circuit design spxtransformersolutions com, short circuit current calculations cooper industries, basic short circuit current calculation electrical, tsewg tp 1 1 / 20. electrical calculation examples, short circuit withstand capability abb ltd A simple method for the approximation of **short** **circuit** current is the infinite bus **short** **circuit** **calculation** method. This method calculates the worst possible or maximum current that propagates from the transformer in case of a **short** **circuit**. We get maximum value because the source and any other impedances are ignored or considered equal to. I S.C. 3 ph for point 1 = 1202 /0.05 = 24,506 A or 24.5 KA (this is the available short circuit current at point 1). The short circuit current at point 2 will be lower than point 1, due to the line impedance (line impedance for the cables will impose the current). The calculation below will show the short circuit current at point 2

short circuit calculation programs is illustrated in Figure 1. The algorithm consists of the following steps: 1. The nodal admittance matrix is constructed as in [1]. The inverter based DG are modeled as current sources and not using the voltage source behind an impedance model suggested in [2], thus impedances corresponding to these. Comparing both units, the latter transformer can deliver five times as much short-circuit current as the former unit. Sample calculation Now that we understand the basic variables that determine short-circuit currents, let's do a sample calculation. As shown in Fig. 2, suppose we have a simple distribution system with a fault condition Abstract. This article elaborates the establishment mechanism and realization method of distribution network analysis platform VDNAP (Visual Distributed Network Analysis Platform) based on geographic information systems relatively deeply, based on describing the method of short-circuit current calculation on superposition principle and then use the method to carry out short-circuit current. Short Circuit Current Calculations • To determine the short-circuit (fault) current: • Draw the one-line diagram • Identify sources of short-circuit current (utility, generation, motors) • Include system component information (tranformers, conductors, busway, overcurrent devices are not considered

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